• Debating Security Plus
  • Security Europe

Cyber-defence needs to be implemented in EU’s military activities

All Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP) activities of the European Union, including military missions and operations, are dependent on effective command and control, on assured information and functioning, as well as on uncontested communication and information systems. They rely on the availability of free and secure access to the internet or – using the… Read article ›

  • Security Europe

Due Diligence and the futility of creating norms in cyberspace

It has become all too common for European policymakers and academics alike to obsess over the creation of norms in cyberspace. Especially the promotion of the due diligence principle, to regulate state behaviour in the fifth domain, is riddled with forlorn expectations and futile assumptions. According to customary international law, due diligence stipulates that, “no… Read article ›

  • Security Europe

Evidence in the cloud and the rule of law in cyberspace

Cybercrime is a reality. It is not just a matter of attacks against machines but a threat to the core values of democratic societies. This is illustrated by the proliferation of private data theft; by cyberattacks against the media, civil society organisations, parliaments and individuals; denial-of-service attacks against public institutions and critical infrastructure; sexual violence… Read article ›